A nudge towards Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision using Moya, a free mobile app in South Africa

Organization: Right to Care (RTC)



Study objective: Using behavioural insights to modify the existing Moya app VMMC form to increase the number of men that complete the form, speak to a call centre agent and book a VMMC at RTC facilities.



Intervention description: A data free link is currently embedded within the Moya application for passive VMMC recruitment. Potential clients interested in VMMC are invited to provide their details which are sent to the RTC call centre for agents to engage in a discussion about VMMC and for appointment scheduling.


For the intervention, three different Moya app VMMC forms will be developed based on behavioural economics principles, each testing out a different nudge.



Evaluation description: A non-randomised group design will be used. The study will have four arms, with one comparison group (receiving the standard of care) and three intervention groups. The comparison group will receive the standard (current) Moya app VMMC form.


Behavioural insights will be used to address hassle factors, leverage the male identity, and personalise the outreach to make registration feel easy, salient, attractive, and encourage timeliness.



Study outcomes:

Primary outcome:

  • The primary outcome is the total number of completed forms submitted on the Moya application for further VMMC engagement 


Secondary outcomes include:

  • Successful contact of registered users that have submitted their details and therefore agreed to be contacted by the RTC call centre agents
  • Confirmed VMMC appointments booked at RTC call centre supported sites 
  • Appointments attended for VMMCs at RTC supported sites



Study site: The study will be conducted across South Africa and the study population includes individuals from the Moya app user base.



Target population: All males over 15 years that submit their details on the Moya app VMMC forms.



Sample size: 141,000 users are expected over the 3 month data collection period; 35,250 for each of the 4 study groups. We expect to see approximately 3,750 registrations booked for the comparison group.



Data analysis: The number of Moya app VMMC forms submitted will be compared between the standard of care form and the three intervention forms by looking at differences in the percentage of registrations made relative to the total number of site visits. Chi-square tests and regression analysis will be used to estimate the effect of the intervention on the main study outcomes. 



Duration: 15 months